sci.virtual-worlds Haptics Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Topics covered in this FAQ:

  1. Commercial
  2. Research Centers
  3. Citations
  4. Online and WWW sources
  5. What about the PowerGlove?
  6. Glove Patents
  7. Credits

Subject: -1- Commercial Sources:

1.1 Gloves:

Abrahms Gentile Entertainment
Product: PC Powerglove
Cost approx. $120.00

The PC PowerGlove will take all the advantage of the original Power Glove, ...but increase its resolution and features, reducing its weight and maintaining a low retail cost ($120.00). The PC PowerGlove is scheduled to be released 1st Quarter 1996, with Developer Kits available 4th Quarter 1995.

Cyberception Inc.
14 Carmichael Ave.
Toronto, Ontario
M5M 2W6
Tel: 416-486-8047
Fax: 416-638-0007

Unused Mattel/Nintendo powergloves modified for the PC parallel port $55.00 US, unmodified $35.00 US available in quantities, with full warranty and support.

Fifth Dimention Technologies (5DT)
Pretoria, South Africa
Tel: +27 12 349 1400/Fax: +27 12 349 1404
Products: 5DT Data Glove

The 5DT Data Glove measures finger flexure and the orientation (roll and pitch) of a user's hand. It can emulate a mouse as well as a baseless joystick and the user can also type while wearing the glove. These facts make it the ideal single input device for virtual reality applications. Breakthrough pricing, new features, an open architecture and software support have made it the glove of choice.

Paul Olckers:
Tel: +27 12 349 1400 Fax: +27 12 349 1404

Fakespace, Inc.
Tel: 415-691-1488
Fax: 415-960-0541
Product: Pinch (TM) Hand Gesture Interface System

Pinch gloves make it possible to use a representation of hand interaction to productively work within a three-dimensional (3D) computer simulation. Each glove contains five sensors (one in each fingertip). Contact between any two or more digits completes a conductive path, and a complex variety of actions based on these simple "pinch" gestures can be defined by the application developer. To track the motion of each "virtual" hand within an application, each glove also has a back-of-hand mount to accommodate Polhemus or other sensors.

Pricing for a single complete system is $2,000, with additional individual gloves priced at $100 each.

In the US, General Reality Company is the master distributor of the glove in the U.S., contact:
Denny Reinert
General Reality Company
124 Race St.
San Jose, CA 95126
Tel: 408-289-8340, Fax: 408-289-8258
web: Product: The "5th Glove":

The new 5th Glove features breakthrough pricing and performance. Advanced fiber optic sensors in each finger sample 256 positions per finger at a 200 hz sample rate. Built-in 2DOF pitch and roll tracking combined with gesture recognition allows movement a long the x,y,z axis. A standard serial (RS-232) interface connects to PC's and workstations. A 6DOF tracker can be added for more advanced applications.

Virtual Technologies
2175 Park Blvd.
Palo Alto, CA 94306
Tel: 415-321-4900/Fax: 415-321-4912
CyberGlove (tm)
Cost: $9800

CyberTouch(TM) glove which consists of the CyberGlove with a tactile feedback option for all five fingers and the palm
Price: $14800

GesturePlus(TM), a trainable gesture recognition system that can be used in conjunction with glove products.
Price: $3500.

(Virtual Technologies, Inc., now has a company-sponsored on-line users group. This users group is intended to enhance communication and broaden the support options for users of Virtual Technologies' products, including the CyberGlove(TM) instrumented glove, GesturePlus(TM) gesture recognition system and Virtual Hand(R) hand-interaction software library. To enroll in the users group, please send email to withthe phrase "subscribe vtug" in the subject line.)

1.2 Finger-Based:

SensAble Tchnologies
University Park at MIT
26 Lansdowne St.
Cambridge, MA 02139
Tel: 617-621-0150
product: PHANToM
cost: $19,000

The PHANToM is unique in that it offers realistic 3-D Touch, the ability to feel the physical properties of virtual 3-D objects, with much higher fidelity and much lower cost than previous force feedback devices.

CM Research
2437 Bay Areas Blvd. No. 234
Houston, TX 77058
Tel: 1-800-262-1267/Fax: 1-281-326-3602 e-mail: Web:
Products: Displaced Temperature Sensing System (DTSS)

With the DTSS one can feel the temperature of a remote location (Real or Unreal) as if you were there.

1.3 Joysticks:

Immersion Corporation
2158 Paragon Drive
San Jose, CA 95131
Tel: 408-467-1900/Fax: 408-467-1901
Product: I-Force Joystick

I-FORCE is the force feedback hardware standard and processing core that is incorporated within joysticks, steering wheels, flight yokes, and other consumer gaming peripherals.

1.4 Other Sources:

727 Airport Boulevard
Ann Arbor, MI 48108
Tel: 313-668-2567/Fax: 313-668-8780
Product: CyberImpact Flight Yoke/Racing Wheel

CyberImpact Force Feedback devices. Cybernet provides a complete Windows 95, NT, MS-DOS CyberImpact software development kit (SDK) using Cybernet's patented application programmer interface (API) and DirectInput Support. Completely programmable sense of touch for entertainment applications in a compact package.

Haptic Technologies Inc.
3575 Boul. St. Laurent, suite 422
Quebec Canada, H2X 2T7
Tel: (Canada) (514) 987-9800 x110/FaxD: (Canada) 514-463-0120 Web:

TouchKit(tm) is a full featured set of tools designed to enable programmers to easily integrate haptic (force and tactile feedback) capability to their applications.

MouseCAT(tm) connects to the host computer through a standard serial connection, and after installing the drivers, will act as a standard mouse enhanced with force feedback for applications supporting the feature.

Images Company
39 Seneca Loop
Staten Island NY 10314
Tel: (718) 698-8305 /Fax: (718) 982-6145
Product: Flex Sensor Price: $5.50

The Flex Sensor is a unique component that changes resistence when bent. An unflexed sensor has a nominal resistance of 10,000 ohms (10 K). As the flex sensor is bent the resistance gradually increases. When the sensor is bent at 90 degress its resistance will range between 30-40 K ohms.

Triptych Designs
One Kendall Square
Suite 2200
Cambridge, MA 02139
Tel: 617-621-7031/Fax: 617-577-1209

Triptych Designs, Inc. is a consulting and software development firm specializing in project that incorporate Force Feedback (haptics), the sense of touch, into virtual environments and 3D applicaitons.

Subject: -2- Research Centers

Applied Science and Engineering Laboratories: Haptic Interfaces

[USA: DE, PHANToM, surface properties, visualization]

Armstrong Laboratory: Human Sensory Feedback (HSF) for Telepresence Project

[USA: OH, telerobotics systems, telepresence]

Carnegie Mellon Univ.'s Microdynamic Systems Laboratory: Magnetic Levitation Haptic Interfaces

[USA: CA, magnetic levitation]

Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Department Visualization and Virtual Reality: Motion-Rendering in VR

[Germany: motion simulation systems]

Interactive Media Center: Haptics Lens Project

[USA: GA, surface pressure, medical]

Institute of Robotics and System Dynamics, Robotic Systems: Man Machine Interfaces

[Germany: surgery simulation, teaching robots]

Iowa Center for Emerging Manufacturing Technology: Robotic and Magnetic Interface for Virtual Reality Force Interactions Project

[USA: IA, modeling]

McGill University's High Performance Robotics Lab

[Canada: medical, Pantograph, Freedom-7]

Northwestern University's Laboratory for Intelligent Mechanical Systems: Haptic Display

[USA: IL, links, publications]

Ohio Supercomputing Center: Haptic Interface for Virtual Exploration of Computational Data

[USA: OH, medical, modeling]

Queen's University's The Touch Laboratory

[Canada: Queen's Univ., haptics for the blind]

Rutgers VR Lab:

[USA: NJ, medical, Rutgers Master II]

Stanford University's Dextrous Manipulation Laboratory

[USA: Stanford Univ., dynamic tactile sensors, control framework]

Stanford University: Haptic User Interfaces for the Blind

[USA: Stanford Univ., joystick, interfaces for the blind]

The Touch Lab

[USA: MIT, PHANToM, skin biomechanics, neurophysiology, psychophysics, motor control, computational models]

Univ. North Carolina: Force Feedback Research

[USA: NC, Armlib, publications]

Univ. of Tsukuba's IWATA Lab

[Japan: devices, software design]

Univ. Utah Biorobotics Laboratory:

Haptic Interfaces for Teleoperation and Virtual Environments

[USA: UT, devices, software design]

Grasping and Master Gloves: This project is generally concerned with both autonomous control and teleoperation of the Utah/MIT Dextrous Hand.

[USA: UT, autonomous control, teleoperation, MIT Dextrous Hand]

Rapid Virtual Prototyping of Mechanical Assemblies: The goal of this project is to add a sense of contact and manipulation in the CAD design of mechanical assemblies.

[USA: UT, devices, software design]

Univ. Washington's BioRobotics Laboratory: Haptics Research

[USA: WA, devices, software design]

Subject: -3- Glove citations

Beauregard, G. L., Srinivasan, M. A., & Durlach, N. I. (1995). The Manual Resolution of Viscosity and Mass. In Proceedings of the DSC, IMECE, ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division, (pp. 657-662). New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Bolas, M. (1995, forthcoming). Alternative Display and Interaction Devices. SPIE Conference. Bellingham, WA: SPIE.

Bolas, M. (1995, July). Applications drive VR Interface Selection. Computer, p. 72.

Bordegoni, M. (1994). Parallel Use of Hand Gestures and Force-Input Device for Interacting with 3D and Virtual Reality Environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 6(4), pp. 391-413.

Brown, J. M., & Colgate, J. E. (1994). Physics-Based Approach to Haptic Display. In Proceedings of the ISMRC 94: International Symposium on Measurement and Control in Robotics, Topical Workshop on Virtual Reality, (pp. 101-106). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE.

Burdea, G. (1996). Force & Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Burdea, G. C. (1995). Research on Portable Force Feedback Masters for Virtual Reality. In Proceedings of Virtual Reality World '95. (pp. 317-324). Munich, Germany: IDG Conferences and Seminars.

Burdea, G., Gomex, D., Langrane, N., et al. (1995). Virtual Reality Graphics Simulation with Force Feedback. International Journal in Computer Simulation, 5(2).

Burdea, G., Goratowski, R. and Langrana, N. (1995). Tactile and Force Sensing for Computerized Hand Diagnosis. In R. M. Satava, K. Morgan, Sieburg, H. B., et al. (Eds.). Interactive Technology and the New Paradigm for Healthcare. (pp. 60-70). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Burdea, G., Zhuang, J., Roskos, E., Silver, D. and Langrana, N. (1992). A Portable Dextrous Master with Force Feedback. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1 (1), 18-28.

Buttolo, P., Braathen, P., & Hannaford, B. (1994). Sliding Control of Force Reflecting Teleoperation: Preliminary Studies. Presence, 3(2), 158-172

Clover, C. L., Luecke, G. R., Troy, J. J., & McNeely, W. A. (1997). Dynamic Simulation of Virtual Mechanisms with Haptic Feedback Using Industrial Robotic Equipment. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, (pp. 724-30). New York, NY: IEEE.

Colgate, J.E., Stanley, M.C., and Brown, J.M. (1995). Issues in the Haptic Display of Tool Use. HTML Document. In Proceedings of IROS '95.

Discovery Channel Online. (1996). PowerGlove: The Hacker's Friend. HTML Document. Gillespie, R. B., & Cutkosky, M. R. (1996). Stable User-Specific Haptic Rendering of the Virtual Wall. In Proceedings of the IMECE '96 Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Teleoperator and Virtual Environments, New York, N.Y.: American Society for Mechanical Engineers

Jacob, R. J. K., Leggett, J. J., Myers, B. A. and Pausch, R. (1993). Interaction Styles And Input/Output Devices. Behaviour and Information Technology. 12(2), pp. 69-79.

Kessler, G. D, Hodges, L. F. and Walker, N. (1995). Evaluation of the CyberGlove as a Whole-Hand Input Device. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 2(4), pp. 263-283.

Klatzky, R. L., Lederman, S., & Reed, C. (1989). Haptic Integration of Object Properties: Texture, Hardness, and Planar Contour. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15(1), 45-57

Klatzky, R. L., Lederman, S. J., & Balakrishnan, J. D. (1991). Task-Driven Extraction of Object Contour by Human Haptics: Part 1. Robotica, 9, 43-51

Klatzky, R. L., Loomis, J., Lederman, S. J., Wake, H., & Fujita, N. (1993). Haptic Indentification of Objects and Their Depictions. Perception & Psychophysics, 54(2), 170-178

Klatzky, R. L., & Lederman, S. J. (1993). Toward a Computational Model of Constraint-Driven Exploration and Haptic Object Identification. Perception, 22, 597-621

Lederman, S. J., & Taylor, M. M. (1969). Perception of Interpolated Position and Orientation by Vision and Active Touch. Perception & Psychophysics, 6(3), 153-159

Lederman, S. J., & Taylor, M. M. (1972). Fingertip Force, Surface Geometry, and the Perception of Roughness by Active Touch. Perception & Psychophysics, 12(5), 401-408

Lederman, S. J. (1974). Tactile Roughness of Grooved Surfaces: The Touching Process and Effects of Macro- and Microsurface Structure. Perception & Psychophysics, 16(2), 385-395

Lederman, S. J., & Abbott, S. G. (1981). Texture Perception: Studies of Intersensory Organization Using a Discrepancy Paradigm, and Visual Versus Tactual Psychophysics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7(4), 902-915

Lederman, S. J., Loomis, J. M., & Williams, D. A. (1982). The Role of Vibration in the Tactual Perception of Roughness. Perception & Psychophysics, 32(2), 109-116

Lederman, S. J., & Browse, R. A. (1988). The Physiology and Psychophysics of Touch. In P. Dario (Ed.), Sensors and Sensory Systems for Advanced Robots, (pp. 71-91). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

Lederman, S. J., Klatzky, R. L., & Balakrishnan, J. D. (1991). Task-Driven Extraction of Object Contour by Human Haptics: Part 2. Robotica, 9, 179-188

Lederman, S. J., & Klatzky, R. L. (1991). An Introduction to Human Haptic Exploration and Recognition of Objects for Neuroscience and AI. In Proceedings of the Neuroscience: From Neural Networks to Artificial Intelligence, (pp. 171-188). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Lederman, S. J., & Klatzky, R. L. (1993). Extracting Object Properties Through Haptic Exploration. Acta Psychologica, 84, 29-40

Lederman, S. J., Klatzky, R. L., & Reed, C. L. (1993). Constraints on Haptic Integration of Spatially Shared Object Dimensions. Perception, 22, 723-743

Marcus, B. A. and Sturman, D. J. (1991). Exotic Input Devices. In Proceedings of National Computer Graphics Association, NCGA '91. (pp. 293-299). Fairfax, VA: NCGA.

Marcus, B. A., An, B. and Eberman, B. (1991). EXOS Research on Master Controllers for Robotic Devices. In Proceedings of 1991 SOARP Conference.

Marcus, B. A., An, B. and Eberman, B. (1991). Making VR Feel Real. In Proceedings of SRI International Virtual Worlds Conference.

Marcus, B. A., Lucas, W. and Churchill, P. J. (1989). Human Hand Sensing for Robotics and Teleoperations.Sensors, 6(11), p. 26, 28-31.

Mark, W. R., Randolph, S. C., Finch, M., Van Verth, J. M., & Taylor, R. M. I. (1996). Adding Force Feedback to Graphics Systems: Issues and Solutions. In Proceedings of the SIGGRAPH, (pp. 447-452). New York, N.Y.: ACM

Massie, T. H. (1996). Initial Haptic Explorations with the Phantom: Virtual Touch Through Point Interaction. Unpublished Masters Thesis, MIT: Dept. of Mechanical Engineering.

Morgenbesser, H. B., & Srinivasan, M. A. (1996). Force Shading for Haptic Shape Perception. In Proceedings of the ASME Winter Annual Meeting, New York: American Society for Mechanical Engineers

Rothwell, J. C., Traub, M. M., Day, B. L., Obeso, J. A., Thomas, P. K., & Marsden, C. D. (1982). Manual Motor Performance in a Deafferented Man. Brain, 105, 515-542

Salisbury, J. K., & Srinivasan, M. A. (1996). Proceedings of the First PHANToM Users Group Workshop (Technical: A.I. Tech Report No. 1596; R.L.E. Tech Report No. 612): MIT: Artificial Intelligence Lab and the Research Lab of Electronics.

Srinivasan, M. A. (1989). Surface Deflection of Primate Fingertip Under Line Load. Journal of Biomechanics, 22(4), 343-349

Srinivasan, M. A., Whitehouse, J. M., & LaMotte, R. H. (1990). Tactile Detection of Slip: Surface Microgeometry and Peripheral Neural Codes. Journal of Neurophysiology, 63(6), 1323-1332

Srinivasan, M. A., & LaMotte, R. H. (1991). Encoding of Shape in the Responses of Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors. In O. Franzen & J. Westman (Eds.), Information Processing in the Somatosensory System, New York, N.Y.: MacMillan Press.

Srinivasan, M. A., & Chen, J.-S. (1993). Human Performance in Controlling Normal Forces of Contact with Rigid Objects. In Proceedings of the DSC, Advances in Robotics, Mechatronics, and Haptic Interfaces, ASME, (pp. 119-125). :

Srinivasan, M. A. (1995). Haptic Interfaces. In N. I. Durlach & A. S. Mavor (Eds.), Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technical Challenges, (pp. 161-187): Report of the Committee on Virtual Reality Research and Development, National Research Council, National Academy Press.

Srinivasan, M. A., & LaMotte, R. H. (1995). Tactual Discrimination of Softness. Journal of Neurophysiology, 73(1), 88-101

Srinivasan, M. A., Beauregard, G. L., & Brock, D. L. (1996). The Impact of Visual Information on the Haptic Perception of Stiffness in Virtual Environments. In Proceedings of the Winter Annual Meeting of ASME, New York, N.Y.: American Society of Mechnical Engineers.

Sturman, D. J. (1992). Whole Hand Input. PH. D. Thesis. [Available via anonymous ftp at, ./pub/sturman/WholeHandInput]. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Sturman, D. J. and Zeltzer, D. (1994, January). A Survey of Glove-Based Input. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 14 (1), 30-39.

Sturman, D. J., Zeltzer, D. and Pieper, S. (1989). Hands-On Interaction with Virtual Environments. In UIST. Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology. (pp. 19-24). New York, NY: ACM.

Sturman, D.J. and Zeltzer, D. (1993). Utility of Whole-Hand Input. In Proceedings of Telemanipulator Technology and Space Telerobotics, SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol.2057, (pp. 282-291).

Sturman, D.J. and Zeltzer, D. (1993). A Design Method For "Whole-Hand" Human-Computer Interaction. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 11(3), pp. 219-38.

Tan, H. Z., Srinivasan, M. A., Eberman, B., & Cheng, B. (1994). Human Factors for the Design of Force-Reflecting Haptic Interfaces. In Proceedings of the DSC - Dynamic Systems and Control, New York: American Society for Mechanical Engineers

Tan, H. Z., Durlach, N. I., Beauregard, G. L., & Srinivasan, M. A. (1995). Manual Discrimination of Compliance Using Active Pinch Grasp: The Roles of Force and Work Cues. Perception & Psychophysics, 57(4), 495-510

Taylor, M. M., & Lederman, S. J. (1975). Tactile Roughness of Grooved Surfaces: A Mode and the Effect of Friction. Perception & Psychophysics, 17(1), 23-36

Ware, C., & Balakrishnan, R. (1994). Reaching for Objects in VR Displays: Lag and Frame Rate. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1(4), 331-356

Ware, C. and Balakrishnan, R. (1994). Target Acquisition In Fish Tank VR: The Effects Of Lag And Frame Rate. In Proceedings of Graphics Interface '94 (pp. 1-7. 18-20 ). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Inf. Process. Society.

Westling, G. K. (1986). Sensori-motor Mechanisms During Precision Grip in Man, New Series No 171. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Umea University Medical Dissertations, University of Umea, Department of Physiology, Sweden.

Subject: -4- Online and WWW Resources

The Air Force Institute of Technology's Robotics and Automation Applications Group:

Annual Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environments & Teleloperator Systems:

Cagatay Basdogan, Ph.D.'s research page

CHI'95 - Gesture at the User Interace Workshop:

DataGlove Research by Heloise Hse:

Marc Ernst's Vision and Haptics Page:

Dr. Harald Fischer's Applications for Tactile Feedback in Minimal Invasive Surgery:

Gesture Archive by Graeme J Sweeney:

Gesture Bibliography by Alan Wexelblat:

Gesture Workshop '96:

Gesture Mailing List :The GESTURE-L Forum covers study of gestures, gesture systems, and alternate sign languages. Send a "subscribe gesture-l " message to

GRASP - Recognising Auslan signs using Instrumented Gloves

Haptics Community Web Page:

Haptic (Sensory/Touch) Interfaces:

Haptics Bibliography by Margaret Minsky:

Machine Gesture and Sign Language Recognition:

Mike's Homebrew VR Lab:

McGill Univ.'s Centre for Intelligent Machine: Telerobotics:

Dinesh K. Pai's Simulation of Physical Systems in Virtual Environments:

Dianne Pawluk's human touch research:

Hong Z. Tan, Ph.D. at MIT:

Chris vanBuskirk's 400-Pin Tactile Array Stimulator:

Subject: -5- What about the PowerGlove?

5.1 Groups to contact:

Power Glove Serial Interface
UIUC Student Chapter of the Association for Computing Machinery
1304 West Springfield, Room 1225
Urbana, IL 61801
5.2 FAQs:


Power Glove FAQ
Is available as an HTML document, By J. Eric Townsend:

The older FAQ is at:

5.3 FTP sites:

Below is an excerpt from the old Glove-List FAQ:

"1.3 ftp sites has offered the use of as a powerglove related ftp site. Check: /pub/vr for a variety of glove-list relted stuff. is no longer the powerglove ftp site."

Chris Hand has done a couple good WWW pages on the PowerGlove:

PowerGlove Sources by Chris Hand

PowerGlove by Chris Hand

5.4 Articles & Info:

Gardner, Dana L. "The Power Glove", Design News. 4-Dec-89 pp63-68

Karlo Takki's PowerGlove Information Page

Subject: -6- Patents:

US Patent 3,022,878 'Communication device' Patented Feb. 27, 1962 Robert Seibel, Putnam Valley, Nathaniel Rochester IBM A further object of this invention is to provide a keyboard into which the hand is inserted, much as the hand is inserted into a glove. Such a keyboard is adaptable to being fitted into a glove.

US Patent 4,414,537 'Digital data entry glove interface device' Patented Nov. 8, 1983 Gary J.Grimes, Bell Telephone Lab. Inc A man-machine interface is disclosed for translating discrete hand positions into electrical signals representing alpha-numeric characters.

US Patent 4,542,291 'Optical flex sensor' Patented Sep. 17, 1985 Thomas G. Zimmerman. VPL Research Inc. The instant invention relate generally to position detectors and more specifically it relates to anoptical flex sensor that produces an output signal in response to bending A further object is to provide an optical flex sensor that uses inexpensive common materials and is assembled either by hand or with simple tools.

US Patent 4,988,981 'Computer data entry and manipulation apparatus and methods' Patented Jan. 29, 1991 Thomas G.Zimmerman, Jaron Z.Lanier VPL Research Inc. Apparatus is disclosed for generating control signals for the manipulation of virtual objects in a computer system according to the gesture and position of an operator's hand or other body part. The apparatus includes a glove worn on the hand which includes sensors for detecting the gestures of the hand, as well as hand position sensing means coupled to the glove and to the computer system for detecting the position of the hand with respect to the system.

U .S. Patent : 5,047,952, Jim Kramer. Communication system for deaf, deaf-blind an non-vocal individuals using instrumented glovesVirtual Technologies, 1991.

Subject: -7- Credits

Comments about, suggestions about or corrections to this posting are welcomed. If you would like to ask me to change this posting in someway, the method I appreciate most is for you to email me the proposed change. Make sure to indicate the section; preferably attaching the original "text" that you propose to change as well.

The following people assisted in the creation of this article:

There are a number of people who's information on the WWW provided information for this FAQ: Chris Hand, J. Eric Townshend and of course, the UIUC Student Chapter of the Association for Computing Machinery

This article was originally written by:
Toni Emerson,

Aaron Jones,

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