An Exploration of Virtual Auditory Shape Perception
1 Actually, at least six dimensions would be more accurate, as the perception of motion via audition is probably superior to static position sensing. See Waugh, 1979.
2 With the possible addition of time, although time is already implicitly convolved with frequency.
3 See Patterson & Green, p. 342.
4 As referenced in Wessel, 1979
5 From an unpublished lecture by David Wessel at the University of California, Berkeley.
6 Almost,but not quite exactly, that is! See Shepard, p. 349.
7 American Bureau of Standards, 1960 as quoted in Risset, 1982.
8 The number on a given dimension is about seven. See Miller, 1956.
9 There are many reviews of auditory localization: Blauert, 1983, Middlefield & Green, 1991, and Oldfield & Simon, 1984 to name a few.
10 As reported in Blauert, 1983.
11 Oldfield & Parker, 1984; Wightman & Kistler, 1989b.
12 One exception is Oldfield & Parker, who predominantly observed back to front reversals.
13 This was the Gehring Audio-Media/Focal-Point system.
14 Unless you are fortunate enough to have a surround sound system.
15 Wenzel, Wightman, & Kistler, 1991; Wenzel, et al., 1993.
16 Actually they only solved a class of these problems. The problem of room acoustics remains unsolved.
17 See also Wenzel, 1992, for a review of virtual sound.
18 See also Wenzel, et al., 1993.
19 These factors are increases over free-field performance.
20 Although this is usually called just "volume" in the literature, I will use the term "tonal volume" in this paper in order to emphasize the distinction from the common synonym for loudness.
21 For those future readers, we are speaking of the 19th century.
22 Perrot et. al, were able to determine that the rate of expansion of the image was quite consistent even across frequencies (mean rate of .38in/sec SD=0.035).
23 See Perrott & Buell, 1982.
24 Actually they also attempted to examine a third dimension: depth, but were unable to obtain consistent results.
25 For more on the precedence effect see Wallach,et al, 1949, Perrott, Strybel, & Manligas, 1987, and Freyman,et al., 1991.
26 E.g. Yost & Soderquist, 1984,.
27 From the subject SDO in Wightman & Kistler, 1989a,b.
28 This is as compared to free-field listening.
29 Wenzel, Wightman, & Kistler 1991 observed horizontal asymmetry but not vertical.
30 Although this subject had a relatively low confusion rate, she had a high average error, and was therefore excluded.
31 I am using "chains" of stimuli, so in this context it does not make sense to consider higher dimensional structures such as regions or volumes.
32 The method of limits is detailed in Snodgrass, 1975.
33 For example, see Bregman & Steiger, 1981.